Fallacy – Critical Thinking Part 4

A fallacy is simply an error in logic. There are several kinds of logic errors that can result when people try to argue a point when the facts don’t exactly support the point. So a fallacy is not bad data but a bad conclusion.

The following types of fallacies come from the Wikipedia article referenced below:

  1. Fallacy of Accident – A generalization that disregards exceptions
  2. Converse Fallacy of Accident – Argues that a special case is the general rule
  3. Irrelevant Conclusion – Diverts attention from a fact
  4. Affirming the consequent – Saying that if A = B, B = A which may not always be true in logic.  For instance: A duck is a mammal, I am a mammal, therefor I am a duck.
  5. Denying the antecedent – It is like #4, only the inverse.  For instance, it is raining, therefor it is cloudy; it is not raining, therefor it is not cloudy.
  6. Begging the question – A conclusion on premises that assume the conclusion.
  7. Fallacy of False Cause or Non Sequitur – Incorrectly assuming one thing is the cause of another.
  8. Fallacy of Many Questions or Loaded Question – Groups more than one question in the form of a single question.
  9. Straw Man – Incorrect logic based on a misrepresentation of an opponent’s position

Please review the following resources for more information:

Popular books on fallacies by Amazon.com:

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