Fallacy – Critical Thinking Part 4
A fallacy is simply an error in logic. There are several kinds of logic errors that can result when people try to argue a point when the facts don’t exactly support the point. So a fallacy is not bad data but a bad conclusion.
The following types of fallacies come from the Wikipedia article referenced below:
- Fallacy of Accident – A generalization that disregards exceptions
- Converse Fallacy of Accident – Argues that a special case is the general rule
- Irrelevant Conclusion – Diverts attention from a fact
- Affirming the consequent – Saying that if A = B, B = A which may not always be true in logic. For instance: A duck is a mammal, I am a mammal, therefor I am a duck.
- Denying the antecedent – It is like #4, only the inverse. For instance, it is raining, therefor it is cloudy; it is not raining, therefor it is not cloudy.
- Begging the question – A conclusion on premises that assume the conclusion.
- Fallacy of False Cause or Non Sequitur – Incorrectly assuming one thing is the cause of another.
- Fallacy of Many Questions or Loaded Question – Groups more than one question in the form of a single question.
- Straw Man – Incorrect logic based on a misrepresentation of an opponent’s position
Please review the following resources for more information:
- Fallacy – Wikipedia
- Encyclopedia of Logical Fallacies
- Fallacies – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- Top 20 Logical Fallacies – The Skeptic’s Guide To The Universe
Popular books on fallacies by Amazon.com:
- How to Win Every Argument: The Use and Abuse of Logic
- Crimes Against Logic: Exposing the Bogus Arguments of Politicians, Priests, Journalists, and Other Serial Offenders
- Thank You for Arguing: What Aristotle, Lincoln, and Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion
- Being Logical: A Guide to Good Thinking